This listing includes published drug checking literature divided into scientific articles and various reports

Content last updated : 28-03-2022

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Scientific articles


A longitudinal study of behavioural outcomes following a visit to the Boom Festival 2018 drug checking service: individual and group level results. Valente et al. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 2022.

Cannabis adulterated with the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist MDMB-4en-PINACA and the role of European drug checking services. Oomen et al. International Journal of Drug Policy Volume 100, February 2022.


Drug checking services for people who use drugs: a systematic review. Maghsoudi et al. Addiction 2021;1–13.

Profile and correlates of colorimetric reagent kit use among people who use ecstasy/MDMA and other illegal stimulants in Australia. Peacock et al. International Journal of Drug Policy Volume 97, November 2021.

Visitors of the Dutch drug checking services: Profile and drug use experience. Koning et al. International Journal of Drug Policy Volume 95, September 2021, 103293

An outbreak of novel psychoactive substance benzodiazepines in the unregulated drug supply: Preliminary results from a community drug checking program using point-of-care and confirmatory methods. Laing et al. International Journal of Drug Policy Volume 93, July 2021.

Intentions, actions and outcomes: A follow up survey on harm reduction practices after using an English festival drug checking service. Measham & Turnbull. International Journal of Drug Policy, available online 8 May 2021.

Selectivity and sensitivity of urine fentanyl test strips to detect fentanyl analogues in illicit drugs. Bergh et al. International Journal of Drug Policy, Volume 90, April 2021.

Implementing an integrated multi-technology platform for drug checking: Social, scientific, and technological considerations. Wallace et al. Drug Testing and Analysis Volume 13, Issue 4, April 2021, pages 734-746.

“I couldn’t live with killing one of my friends or anybody”: A rapid ethnographic study of drug sellers’ use of drug checking. Betsos et al. The International journal on drug policy Volume 87, January 2021, 102845.


Factors associated with drug checking service utilization among people who use drugs in a Canadian setting. Long et al. Harm Reduction Journal volume 17, Article number: 100 (2020)

Piloting the UK’s First Home-Office-Licensed Pharmacist-Led Drug Checking Service at a Community Substance Misuse Service. Guirguis et al. Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), July 2020.

Drug Checking and Its Potential Impact on Substance Use. Betzler et al. European Addiction Research, June 12, 2020.

An assessment of the limits of detection, sensitivity and specificity of three devices for public health-based drug checking of fentanyl in street-acquired samples. Green et al. International Journal of Drug Policy. Volume 77, March 2020.

City checking: Piloting the UK’s first community‐based drug safety testing (drug checking) service in 2 city centres. Measham. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2020; 1–9

What is needed for implementing drug checking services in the context of the overdose crisis? A qualitative study to explore perspectives of potential service users. Wallace et al. Harm Reduction Journal volume 17, Article number: 29 (2020).


Drug checking services at music festivals and events in a Canadian setting. McCrae et al. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 205, 1 December 2019.

Evaluation of a drug checking service at a large scale electronic music festival in Portugal. Valente et al. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2019, 73, 88–95.

Acceptability of implementing community-based drug checking services for people who use drugs in three United States cities: Baltimore, Boston and Providence. Sherman et al. The International journal on drug policy 2019 Jun;68:46-53.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) in the Netherlands: occurrence in forensic drug samples, consumer drug samples and poisons center exposures between 2013 and 2017. Hondebrink et al. Addiction, Volume 115, Issue 4, April 2020, Pages 716-725.

Drug safety testing, disposals and dealing in an English field: Exploring the operational and behavioural outcomes of the UK’s first onsite ‘drug checking’ service. Measham. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2019.

Trusting the source: The potential role of drug dealers in reducing drug-related harms via drug checking. Bardwell et al. Drug and alcohol dependence Volume 198, 1 May 2019, Pages 1-6.

Perspectives on rapid fentanyl test strips as a harm reduction practice among young adults who use drugs: a qualitative study. Goldman et al. Harm Reduction Journal, 2019. 


Prevalence of reagent test‐kit use and perceptions of purity among ecstasy users in an electronic dance music scene in New York City. Palamar & Barratt. Drug and Alcohol Review, 2018.

Drug checking as a potential strategic overdose response in the fentanyl era. Laing et al. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2018.

Use of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs. Krieger et al. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2018.

Fentanyl test strips as an opioid overdose prevention strategy: Findings from a syringe services program in the Southeastern United States. Peiper et al. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2018.

Drug checking at an electronic dance music festival during the public health overdose emergency in British Columbia. Mema et al. Canadian Journal of Public Health (2018).

Initial results of a drug checking pilot program to detect fentanyl adulteration in a Canadian setting. Tupper et al. Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2018) 190: 242-245.

Evaluation of a fentanyl drug checking service for clients of a supervised injection facility, Vancouver, Canada. Karamouzian et al. Harm Reduction Journal (2018) 15:46.

Fentanyl self-testing outside supervised injection settings to prevent opioid overdose: Do we know enough to promote it? McGowan et al. International Journal of Drug Policy 2018, Volume 58, 31 – 36.

Harm reduction innovation during an overdose emergency. Lysyshyn & Buxto. UBCMJ. 10:1. August 2018.

Willingness to use drug checking within future supervised injection services among people who inject drugs in a mid-sized Canadian city. Kennedy et al. Drug & Alcohol Dependence (2018), Volume 185 , 248 – 252.

High willingness to use rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs. Krieger et al. Harm Reduction Journal 2018, 15:7.

Drug checking: a potential solution to the opioid overdose epidemic? Bardwell & Kerr. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2018, 13:20

The importance of drug checking outside the context of nightlife in Slovenia. Sande & Šabić. Harm Reduction Journal 15 (2018): 2.

Music Festival Attendees’ Illicit Drug Use, Knowledge and Practices Regarding Drug Content and Purity: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Niamh et al. Harm Reduction Journal 15 (2018): 1.

Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features. Barrat et al. Drug and Alcohol Review 2018 Feb;37(2):226-236.


Cocaine adulteration. Kudlacek et al. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 2017, 83/84, 75-81.

Who is ‘Molly’? MDMA adulterants by product name and the impact of harm-reduction services at raves. Saleemi et al. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2017 Aug;31(8):1056-1060.

An overview of forensic drug testing methods and their suitability for harm reduction point-of-care services. Harper et al. Harm Reduction Journal 14 (2017): 52.

The utility of drug checking services as monitoring tools and more: A response to Pirona et al. Vidal Giné et al. International Journal of Drug Policy 45 (2017) 46–47.

The detection and prevention of unintentional consumption of DOx and 25x-NBOMe at Portugal’s Boom Festival. Martins et al. Human Psychopharmacology Clinical & Experimental 2017;32:e2608.

Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands. van der Gouwe et al. Addiction 2017 Apr;112(4):640-648.

The hidden web and the fentanyl problem: Detection of ocfentanil as an adulterant in heroin. Quintana et al. International Journal of Drug Policy 2017 Feb;40:78-83.

Drug Testing in Europe: Monitoring Results of the Trans European Drug Information (T.E.D.I) Project. Brunt et al. Drug Testing and Analysis 2017 Feb;9(2):188-198.

Is online information on ecstasy tablet content safe? Vrolijk et al. Addiction 2017 112: 94–100.

Application of a Combined Approach to Identify New Psychoactive Street Drugs and Decipher Their Mechanisms at Monoamine Transporters. Mayer et al. In M. H. Baumann, R. A. Glennon, & J. L. Wiley (Eds.), Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS): The Science Behind the Headlines, pp. 333–350, 2017. Springer International Publishing.


Results of an international drug testing service for cryptomarket users. Caudevilla et al. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2016 Sep;35:38-41.

Crystals and tablets in the Spanish ecstasy market 2000-2014: are they the same or different in terms of purity and adulteration? Vidal Giné et al. Forensic Science International Forensic Science International 2016 Jun;263:164-168


Monitoring new psychoactive substances (NPS) in The Netherlands: Data from the drug market and the Poisons Information Centre. Hondebrink et al. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2015 Feb 1;147:109-15.

New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon? Vidal Giné et al. Drug Testing and Analysis 2014 Jul-Aug;6(7-8):819-24.

MALDI Orbitrap mass spectrometry for fast and simplified analysis of novel street and designer drugs. Ostermann et al. Clinica Chimica Acta, 433, 254–258, 2014.

The identification and chemical characterization of a new arylcyclohexylamine, methoxetamine, using a novel Emergency Department toxicosurveillance tool. Westwell et al. Drug Testing and Analysis 2013, 5: 203-207.

A combined approach using transporter-flux assays and mass spectrometry to examine psychostimulant street drugs of unknown content. Rosenauer et al. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 4(1), 182–190, 2013.

Monitoring illicit psychostimulants and related health issues. Brunt, T. University of Amsterdam 2012.

Drug-Checking: A prevention measure for a heterogeneous group with high consumption frequency and polydrug use – evaluation of Zurichs Drug-Checking services. Hungerbuehler et al. Harm Reduction Journal 2011;8:16.


Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation. Ritter. The International journal on drug policy 2010 Jul;21(4):265-70.

Content of ecstasy in the Netherlands: 1993-2008. Vogels et al. Addiction 2009 Dec;104(12):2057-66.

Monitoring ecstasy content in France: results from the National Surveillance System 1999-2004. Giraudon & Bello. Substance use & misuse 2007;42(10):1567-78.

Testing Drugs versus Testing for Drug Use: Private Risk Management in the Shadow of Criminal Law. MacCoun. 56 DePaul L. Rev. 507, 2006.

A survey of regular ecstasy users’ knowledge and practices around determining pill content and purity: Implications for policy and practice. Johnston et al. International Journal of Drug Policy 2006, vol. 17, pp. 464 – 472.

Pharmacological content of tablets sold as “ecstasy”: results from an online testing service. Tanner-Smith. Drug and alcohol dependence 2006 Jul 27;83(3):247-54.


Underground pill testing, down under. Camilleri & Caldicott. Forensic science international 2005 Jun 30;151(1):53-8.

Konsumtypen bei freizeitdrogenkonsumenten in Österreich. Eggerth et al. Sucht, 51(2), 88–96, 2005.

Putting an Ecstasy test kit to the test: harm reduction or harm induction? Murray et al. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Oct;23(10):1238-44.

Drug Checking: Monitoring the Contents of New Synthetic Drugs. Schroers. Journal of Drug Issues 2002 Vol 32, Issue 2, pp. 635 – 646.

Monitoring synthetic drug markets, trends, and public health. Spruit. Substance use & misuse 2001 Jan;36(1-2):23-47.

Ecstasy pill testing: harm minimization gone too far? Winstock et al. Addiction. 2001 Aug;96(8):1139-48.

Validation of twelve chemical spot tests for the detection of drugs of abuse. O’Neal et al. Forensic science international 2000 Apr 10;109(3):189-201.


Ecstasy Use and Policy Responses in the Netherlands. Spruit. Journal of Drug Issues 1999, Vol 29, Issue 3, pp. 653 – 677.

MDMA on the Street: Analysis Anonymous®. Renfroe. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1986, Vol 18, Issue 4, 363-369

Misrepresentation of Stimulant Street Drugs: A Decade of Experience in an Analysis Program. Klatt et al. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology 1986, Vol 24, Issue 5, 441-450

Street drug analysis: an eleven year perspective on illicit drug alteration. Renfroe & Messinger. Seminars in adolescent medicine 1985 Dec;1(4):247-57.

The Evolution of a Community Based Drug Analysis Program. Falck. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1981 13(4):381-383.

Status of Drug Quality in the Street-Drug Market-An Update. Brown & Malone. Clinical Toxicology, 1976, 9:2, 145-168.

An Interpretation Of Trends in Street Drug Analysis Programs: Whom Do They Serve? Kealy & Webber. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 1975, 7:3, 281-289.

Street Drug Analysis and Community Based Drug Programs. Smith. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1974, 6:2, 153-159.

Some U.S. Street Drug Identification Programs. Brown & Malone. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1973, Volume 13, Issue 12, 670 – 674.

Street-Drug Identification Program In Amsterdam. Zwart. Pacific Information Service on Street-Drugs, Issue 11, June 1973

A Street-Drug Identification program. Brown. Pacific Information Service on Street-Drugs, Issue 4, May 1972

Analysis of illicit drugs. Filedt Kok et al. The Lancet, Volume 297, Issue 7708, 22 May 1971, Pages 1065-1066



Relatório do serviço de drug checking da Kosmicare – Novembro 2020 – Novembro 2021. Kosmicare, Kosmic Publications, 2022.


Philtre 2013-2021. Welsh Emerging Drugs & Identification of Novel Substances Project (Wedinos). Public Health Wales.

Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) Annual Report 2020. Trimbos-instituut 2021.

Drug Checking Jahresbericht 2020. checkit! 2021.

Drug checking em Portugal: Do proibicionismo às políticas baseadas na evidência. Beserra. In H. Valente; Pires, C.; M. Daniel; Cunha, M. (Ed.), Redução de Danos em Contexto de Festas (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 105–120, 2021). EDITORA CRV.


Drug Checking Service Report – November 2019 to November 2020. Kosmicare, Kosmic Publications, 2020.

Drug Checking Jahresbericht 2019. checkit! 2020.

Tryggere med kunnskap – Anbefalinger til implementering av rusmiddelanalysetjenester i Norge. Mjelva et al. Foreningen tryggere ruspolitikk, June 2020.

Adulterants, Contaminants and Co-occurring Substances in Drugs on the Illegal Market in Canada: An Analysis of Data from Drug Seizures, Drug Checking and Urine Toxicology. Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction, April 2020.

Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) Annual Report 2019. Trimbos-instituut 2020.

Drug Checking—An approach to chemical anarchy. Valente & Martins. February 2020. Online at:


Literature review of drug checking in nightlife –Methods, services, and effects. Centre for Rusmiddelforsknin, University of Aarhus. Danish Health Authority and Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (DHA/CRF), 2019.

Drugs, Poisons and Controlled Substances Amendment (Pill Testing Pilot for Drug Harm Reduction) Bill 2019, Bill Brief No. 3, December 2019, Department of Parliamentary Services Parliament of Victoria

Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) Annual Report 2018. Trimbos-instituut 2019.

Factsheet on drug checking in the Netherlands. Trimbos-instituut 2019.

Drug Checking: Operational Technician Manual. British Columbia Centre on Substance Use. McCrae et al., March 2019.

20+ ans d’analyse de produits psychotropes en Belgique francophone; Le testing: évolution d’un projet de réduction des risques [20+ years of drug checking in French-speaking Belgium; Pill testing: evolution of a harm reduction project]. Libois et al. Brussels: Modus Vivendi asbl. 2019.

Huumausaineiden todellinen sisältö ja tiedon vaikutus käyttöpäätöksiin jäämänäytetutkimuksen valossa. Järvelin et al. Tietopuu: Katsauksia & näkökulmia 5/2019. A-klinikkasäätiö.


Standards Drug Checking: Counselling Module. Brunner et al. Infodrog, Swiss Office for the Coordination of Addiction Facilities, 2018.

Drug Checking on Vesterbro. A pilot project at Men’s Home. ”Harm Reduction Through Knowledge”. Gosmer. Helsefonden, Oak Foundation Denmark, Mændenes Hjem, 2018.

Report on Canberra GTM Harm Reduction Service, Harm Reduction Australia, June 2018

Comparing Models of Drug Checking Services in Canada – Centre on Drug Policy Evaluation 18.7.2018

Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) Annual Report 2017. Trimbos-instituut 2018.

Fentanyl and fentanyl analogues: Samples of adulterated heroin from cryptomarkets. Technical Reports 001. Energy Control International (ABD). 2018.

Global review of drug checking services operating in 2017. Barrat et al. Drug Policy Modelling Bulletin no. 24. National Drug & Alcohol Research Center, UNSW Sydney.

Night Lives: Reducing Drug-Related Harm in the Night Time Economy. Measham & Fisher. Volteface 19.3.2018.

Fentanyl Test Strip Pilot: San Francisco 2017-2018. Marshall. Harm Reduction Coalition 18.2.2018.

Fentanyl Overdose Reduction Checking Analysis Study (FORECAST). Sherman & Green. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 6.2.2018.


Drug checking as a harm reduction intervention. Evidence Review Report. British Columbia Centre on Substance Use. Kerr & Tupper. December 2017.

Drug checking as a harm reduction tool for recreational drug users: opportunities and challenges. Brunt. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). 30.10.2017.

BAONPS DRUG CHECKING: reccomendation for a pilot implementation & technique update – RAMAN Spectroscopy. Fornero et al. B.A.O.N.P.S. – Be Aware On Night Pleasure Safety. 19.10.2017.

Drug safety testing at festivals and night clubs. Royal Society for Public Health 8.6.2017.

Factsheet “Drug Checking”. Infodrog, 2017, Switzerland.

Evidence Brief: Drug checking services as a harm reduction intervention. Leece. Public Health Ontario, February 2017.

Report on the analyzed substances in Spain by Energy Control during 2015. Energy Control 2017.

Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) Annual Report 2016. Trimbos-instituut 2017.


Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) Annual Report 2015. Trimbos-instituut 2016.

A Pill Too Hard To Swallow? – A Public Health and Legislative Consideration of Methods to Reduce Drug-Related Harm in the Victorian Party Scene: On-SitePill Testing, Market Monitoring and Publication of Police Drug Seizure Data. Lefkovits. A Report Prepared for the Victorian Parliamentary Internship Program, 10 June 2016.

Drug Checking at Music Festivals: A How-To Guide. Sage & Michelow. ANKORS. 2016.

Drug checking services: Brief. Tregoning, Unharm. May 2016.


Harm Reduction and Drug Checking: A wrap-around service for festivals. Case Study: Shambhala Music Festival. Sage. ANKORS, 2015.

“Start Small, Take it Easy“: Results from the ANKORS harm reduction survey at the 2013 Shambhala music festival. Michelow & Dowden. ANKORS, 2015.

Third TEDI trend report. The Trans-European Drug Information project (TEDI). 2013.

Second TEDI trend report. The Trans-European Drug Information project (TEDI). 2013.

First TEDI trend report. The Trans-European Drug Information project (TEDI). 2012

TEDI Drug Checking Consultation and Counselling Guidelines. Bücheli & The Trans-European Drug Information project (TEDI). 2012.

Guidelines for Drug Checking Methodology. The Trans-European Drug Information project (TEDI). June 2012.

Good Practice Standards for Drug-Checking Services. Ventura et al. Nightlife Empowerment & Well-being Implementation Project. 2012.

Local Point of Reception and Information for Party Drug Users. Modus Vivendi. EMCDDA Best practice portal: EDDRA project description. 2012.

Factsheet on Drug Checking in Europe. The Trans-European Drug Information project (TEDI). October 2011.


Évaluation des actions de réduction des risques dans le cadre des activités de testing menées par l’ASBL Modus Vivendi [Evaluation of harm reduction actions in the context of drug checking activities conducted by Modus Vivendi, a nonprofit organization]. Huberty et al. Brussels: Université Libre de Bruxelles, École de Santé Publique, 2010.

Réduction des risques avec analyse de nouvelles drogues de synthèse : évaluation [Harm reduction with analysis of new psychoactive sybstances: evaluation]. Houioux et al. Brussels: ULB Promes. 2006.

Evaluation Study: Impact Of Pill Testing Programmes With Regard To The Consumption Behaviour And Risk Consciousness Among Users Of Synthetic Drugs (ecstasy). EMCDDA Best practice portal: EDDRA project description. 2003.

Scientific Project: ChEck iT! EMCDDA Best practice portal: EDDRA project description. 2002.

Pill Testing, Ecstasy & Prevention: A Scientific Evalution in Three European Cities. Benschop et al. Rozenberg Publishers. 2002.

An inventory of on-site pill-testing interventions. Kriener et al. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. 2001.

Street drug analysis and its social and clinical implications. Marshman et al. 1974 Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Research Foundation.